Wednesday, May 04, 2005

FOSS in India


The Open source initiative ( defines Opensource as : Open source doesn't just mean access to the source code. The distribution terms of open-source software must comply with the following criteria:
-->Free Redistribution
-->Source Code
-->Derived Works
-->Integrity of The Author's Source Code
-->No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups
-->No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor
-->Distribution of License
-->License Must Not Be Specific to a Product
-->License Must Not Restrict Other Software
-->License Must Be Technology-Neutral

The basic idea behind open source is very simple: When programmers can read, redistribute, and modify the source code for a piece of software, the software evolves. People learn from it ,improve it, adapt it and fix bugs. And this can happen at a speed that, if one is used to the slow pace of conventional software development, seems astonishing.
India is slowly and steadily started believing in Open source and its philosophy there is lack of awareness amongst the general public regarding GNU.Opensource and FOSS. But this won't take much time to change.

As far as policies by the Indian government are concerned ,they are not framed overnight. Also, adoption of technology is one thing, while mandating it is not as simple. Especially when you are talking open source software. FOSS can help government save money, communicate better and reduce conflicts. However, adopting FOSS could mean having to make some investments, scout for trained people and recharge the bureaucracy.
The following intiatives by the government ,state the changing policy of the government
The project Indix,, is funded by the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology and has been running for two years. It is being done by the National Centre for Software Technology (NCST), a government of India body.

C-DAC, the Indian government-run Centre for the Development of Advanced computing has announced in October 2004 the launch of the launch of its "janabhaaratii" project for localization of FLOSS.

The National Informatics Center (NIC) of India has contracted IBM to deliver open solutions . NIC is a premiere consulting organization in the field of Informatics Services and Information Technology applications.

The state government have started implementation of Gnu/Linux based soluton at their own level.The southern state of kerala being the most active in this regard. The Akshaya project ( is the flagship project of these initiatives.

Piracy in India is rampant, checking this will draw a lot of attention to other alternatives like FOSS/Opensource products..Taking the first step in this direction, the government has started a hotline to report piracy and individuals reporting such cases will be rewarded.

The learning curve for FOSS/Opensource is steep ,which prevents people to to use it ,but the price advantage and he usefulness of FOSS are making it a viable institutions
Starting from educational institutions, to banks, government institutions and to corporate sector all sectors stand to benefit from this revolution which is gaining momentum in India.

Sunday, May 01, 2005

Recover Linux boot loader

Recover Linux Boot loader
This is to be done when you need to recover the Linux boot loader after another OS has erased the previous boot loader

most of the Linux distros have rescue mode
lookout for that option when you boot from the 1st Cd of that distro.
you will end up at some shell prompt with some directions about your current system image
you can follow those instructions to recover the Linux loader

this document will help you to recover the Linux loader for any distro and any version

boot from a Linux rescue CD or any Live CD
when you are at the shell prompt

run this

#fdisk -l

you will get some entry like this

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/hda1 * 1 510 4096543+ b W95 FAT32
/dev/hda2 511 1096 4707045 83 Linux
/dev/hda3 1097 1797 5630782+ 83 Linux
/dev/hda4 1798 4865 24643710 f W95 Ext'd (LBA)
/dev/hda5 1798 2243 3582463+ 7 HPFS/NTFS
/dev/hda6 2244 2753 4096543+ b W95 FAT32
/dev/hda7 2754 4347 12803773+ b W95 FAT32
/dev/hda8 4348 4865 4160803+ 83 Linux

since i have multiple Linux FS partitions so i have more than one entry here,
this may not be the case for you ,or if it is then you need to identify your root (/) partition

Bow i know that my root(/) for my Linux installation is /dev/hda3

so i will make a dir in anywhere ,say in the /tmp directory

# mkdir /tmp/mnt

then mount your Linux installation there

# mount /dev/hda3 /tmp/mnt/

then chroot to that partition

if everything is right then you will end up here

# chroot /tmp/mnt/
root@gaurav/ #

most Linux rescue modes will leave you to this stage ,so the below directions are common for all distros.

then if you had grub installed earlier the go for re-installing grub as

# grub-install /dev/hda

or if you have lilo installed
you can check lilo installation by

# lilo -v

this will only check if the lilo boot loader will be installed without any errors and will not install lilo.

and to install lilo


after this u can exit from the Linux rescue mode and go for a reboot .